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The Journal of English Language and Literature , Vol.65, No.2, 343 ~ 364, 2019
Title
The Political Unconscious of Hard Times: “Populace Ideologeme” Overthrowing the Surface of a Narrative
김정미 Jeong-mi Kim
abstract
On its surface, the story of Hard Times attacks the utilitarian ideology and the educational system founded on it. Beneath this exterior it shows us a class struggle going on between working class and industrial bourgeosie. In this context, it seems that Dickens takes working class’s side by highlighting the evil disposition that self-made capitalist in this story has. But there is something hidden in this novel that is contradictory to writer’s intention, that is not controlled by the consciousness of him. Fredric Jameson insists that beneath the form of a narrative lies the political unconscious which we can find by rewriting the texts in the light of ethical, social, and historical criticisms respectively. Jameson’s interpretive method focuses on restoring the original message of a novel that lies being distorted by various kinds of censorship. He puts a literary work in the historical context in an attempt to get a complete picture from the whole human history and thereby uncover the political unconscious of the text. Yet the unconscious of the text lies subtly disguised like the unconscious of the human psyche. Hence it necessitates several interpretive steps to grasp the meaning of the textual unconscious. Jameson likens this critical process to the work of a sculptor chiseling off unnecessary parts of his material. Viewed in this context, the message this novel gives us is not the one that Dickens tries to give us but the one that the text itself reveals through the political unconscious of the novel.
Key Words
『어려운 시절』, 제임슨, 정치적 무의식, 이데올로기소, 형식의 이데올로기, Hard times, Jameson, Political Unconscious, Ideologeme, Ideology of Form
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